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Side-to-side axial movements

S. Franca, et al.

Volume 16, Number 1, March 2014

Keywords : Not applicable, Tonic-clonic seizure, side-to-side axial movement, Not applicable, Not applicable

Methods. We retrospectively studied 86 GTCS, 13 primary and 73 secondary, in 58 patients who underwent video-EEG (vEEG) evaluation in our epilepsy monitoring unit. Eleven patients had generalised epilepsy and 47 focal epilepsy. Two expert epileptologists, blinded to diagnosis, examined the vEEGs independently for the presence of five semiological signs. Results. Asymmetry of limb movements in clonic phase, side-to-side axial movements, and asymmetric seizure termination occurred more frequently ( p<0.05) in secondary GTCS compared to primary GTCS. Combining asymmetry of limb movements in clonic phase and side-to-side axial movements provided the greatest value in differentiating secondary GTCS from primary GTCS. Conclusion. Careful examination of GTCS seizure semiology can help differentiate primary from secondary GTCS. The semiological sign of side-to-side axial movements, which has not previously been studied in this context, may add to existing literature of semiological signs and be of value for the evaluation of surgical patients in the epilepsy monitoring unit. In the out-patient setting, a clear history of these signs may help guide drug treatment choices. [ Published with video sequences].

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Side-to-side axial movements

S. Franca, et al.

Volume 16, Number 1, March 2014

Keywords : Not applicable, Tonic-clonic seizure, side-to-side axial movement, Not applicable, Not applicable

Methods. We retrospectively studied 86 GTCS, 13 primary and 73 secondary, in 58 patients who underwent video-EEG (vEEG) evaluation in our epilepsy monitoring unit. Eleven patients had generalised epilepsy and 47 focal epilepsy. Two expert epileptologists, blinded to diagnosis, examined the vEEGs independently for the presence of five semiological signs. Results. Asymmetry of limb movements in clonic phase, side-to-side axial movements, and asymmetric seizure termination occurred more frequently ( p<0.05) in secondary GTCS compared to primary GTCS. Combining asymmetry of limb movements in clonic phase and side-to-side axial movements provided the greatest value in differentiating secondary GTCS from primary GTCS. Conclusion. Careful examination of GTCS seizure semiology can help differentiate primary from secondary GTCS. The semiological sign of side-to-side axial movements, which has not previously been studied in this context, may add to existing literature of semiological signs and be of value for the evaluation of surgical patients in the epilepsy monitoring unit. In the out-patient setting, a clear history of these signs may help guide drug treatment choices. [ Published with video sequences].

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Side-to-side axial movements

S. Franca, et al.

Volume 16, Number 1, March 2014

Keywords : Not applicable, Tonic-clonic seizure, side-to-side axial movement, Not applicable, Not applicable

Methods. We retrospectively studied 86 GTCS, 13 primary and 73 secondary, in 58 patients who underwent video-EEG (vEEG) evaluation in our epilepsy monitoring unit. Eleven patients had generalised epilepsy and 47 focal epilepsy. Two expert epileptologists, blinded to diagnosis, examined the vEEGs independently for the presence of five semiological signs. Results. Asymmetry of limb movements in clonic phase, side-to-side axial movements, and asymmetric seizure termination occurred more frequently ( p<0.05) in secondary GTCS compared to primary GTCS. Combining asymmetry of limb movements in clonic phase and side-to-side axial movements provided the greatest value in differentiating secondary GTCS from primary GTCS. Conclusion. Careful examination of GTCS seizure semiology can help differentiate primary from secondary GTCS. The semiological sign of side-to-side axial movements, which has not previously been studied in this context, may add to existing literature of semiological signs and be of value for the evaluation of surgical patients in the epilepsy monitoring unit. In the out-patient setting, a clear history of these signs may help guide drug treatment choices. [ Published with video sequences].

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Self-induction seizures in sunflower epilepsy: a video-EEG report

V. Belcastro, et al.

Volume 16, Number 1, March 2014

Keywords : Genetic predisposition, Absence (dialeptic) seizure, Not applicable, Idiopathic generalized not specified

and self-induction is a mode of seizure precipitation employed by either intellectually disabled or healthy photosensitive individuals. Absences and myoclonic jerks are the most common seizure types in self-induction. We report on a girl with normal intelligence who self-induced seizures by waving her outspread fingers in front of a bright light. This situation is called sunflower epilepsy. [ Published with video sequences]

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Self-induction seizures in sunflower epilepsy: a video-EEG report

V. Belcastro, et al.

Volume 16, Number 1, March 2014

Keywords : Genetic predisposition, Absence (dialeptic) seizure, Not applicable, Idiopathic generalized not specified

and self-induction is a mode of seizure precipitation employed by either intellectually disabled or healthy photosensitive individuals. Absences and myoclonic jerks are the most common seizure types in self-induction. We report on a girl with normal intelligence who self-induced seizures by waving her outspread fingers in front of a bright light. This situation is called sunflower epilepsy. [ Published with video sequences]

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Generalised electrographic seizures presenting as perioral myoclonia

J. L. Dearborn, et al.

Volume 16, Number 1, March 2014

Keywords : Idiopathic, Myoclonic seizure, Absence (dialeptic) seizure, Not applicable, Perioral myoclonia with absences

myoclonia. With only one tonic-clonic seizure seven years before, he had mentioned several episodes of chin twitching over the years. In the clinic, there were intermittent chin movements without apparent confusion, as he was able to provide a complete history and was fully oriented with intact memory. His video-EEG showed paroxysms of polyspike and slow-wave activity, with the longest burst-free interval being 20 seconds. Discharges were maximal over the fronto-central regions, correlating with the chin myoclonus. He was able to tap his hand continuously, and remained alert. The case represents an atypical presentation of idiopathic generalised epilepsy without manifestation of absence or limb myoclonus. Although juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and other idiopathic epilepsies are rarely associated with perioral myoclonia, this sign was the principal clinical feature for this patient. Oral treatment with levetiracetam resolved his seizures. [ Published with video sequences]

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A simple febrile seizure with focal onset

S. Hamelin, et al.

Volume 16, Number 1, March 2014

Keywords : Genetic predisposition, HEAD DEVIATION, Tonic posture, Motor seizure (simple), Unkown, Febrile seizures

during the subsequent 24 hours. We report the case of fortuitous video-EEG recording of a FS, clinically classified as “simple”, which demonstrated a focal, temporal onset. This clinical finding is in agreement with animal model studies demonstrating focal onset. [ Published with video sequences]

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