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Editor's Choice

Graeme J Sills PhD, Associate Editor Epileptic Disorders

There’s a festival of pharmacology in this issue of Epileptic Disorders!

This month we have two Seminars in Epileptology articles, each provided by a duo of very eminent authors who are internationally renowned for their long-standing work in the field of epilepsy therapeutics. Together, these contributions provide an excellent overview of the clinical pharmacology of antiepileptic drugs and their associated pharmacokinetic interactions and are essential reading for those who may be unfamiliar with how some of our most widely-used drugs behave.

BOOK OF THE MONTH

Benjamin Cretin

A guide to diagnosing even the rarest types of consciousness loss in routine practice. Healthcare providers are frequently called upon to deal with patients who have experienced fainting with and without consciousness loss. The multitude of possible causes makes this very difficult to diagnose. This book lists all...

AHEAD OF PRINT

Concept of epilepsy surgery and presurgical evaluation

Chaturbhuj Rathore, Kurupath Radhakrishnan

surgery depends upon an appropriate presurgical evaluation process which should ensure the selection of suitable patients who are likely to become seizure-free following surgery without any unacceptable deficit. The two basic goals of the presurgical evaluation are the accurate localization and delineation of the extent of the epileptogenic zone, and its complete and safe resection. The process of the presurgical evaluation requires a multimodality approach wherein each modality provides unique and complimentary information which is combined with the information provided by other modalities to generate a hypothesis with regard to the likely epileptogenic zone. The basic modalities for the presurgical evaluation are clinical history, long-term video-EEG recording, high-resolution MRI, and neuropsychological evaluation. The additional modalities include functional imaging studies, electrical and magnetic source imaging, functional MRI, and intracranial monitoring. Each modality has its own limitations and the information provided by none of them is absolute. Hence, a concordance among the different modalities is the key to surgical success. The presurgical evaluation is a step-wise process starting form the most basic and most reliable tests and progressing to more complex and invasive modalities. The number of tests required varies according to the complexity involved and may include very basic minimum investigations in a given case, to the use of all the available investigations in more complex cases. The proper selection of various investigations and their accurate interpretation at each stage is required to ensure a successful outcome. In this article, we intend to review some of these basic concepts of presurgical evaluation and epilepsy surgery, and try to provide a frame work of the presurgical evaluation process.

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CURRENT ISSUE

Epileptic Disorders

Volume 16
Number 4,
December 2014

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Review article

Non-convulsive status epilepticus in the elderly

Shuli Cheng

It has been determined that about 16% of patients aged 60 or older with confusion of unknown origin have non-convulsive status epilepticus. The diagnosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus is difficult in the elderly because possible aetiologies of confusion may present with the same clinical picture. Non-convulsive status epilepticus in the elderly carries major morbidity and mortality, attributable primarily to aetiology, and treatment is complex, involving treatment of the aetiology and concomitant medical illnesses, whilst balancing the side effects and drug interactions of antiepileptic drugs.

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Seminar in Epileptology

The clinical pharmacology of traditional antiepileptic drugs

Frank J.E. Vajda, Mervyn J. Eadie

These drugs comprise phenobarbitone and some of its congeners, phenytoin, ethosuximide, carbamazepine, valproate, and certain benzodiazepines. Details of their pharmacological profiles are outlined in the following account.

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Interactions between antiepileptic drugs, and between antiepileptic drugs and other drugs

Gaetano Zaccara, Emilio Perucca

in absorption, distribution or elimination, whereas pharmacodynamic interactions involve synergism and antagonism at the site of action. Most clinically important interactions of antiepileptic drugs result from induction or inhibition of drug metabolism. Carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital and primidone are strong inducers of cytochrome P450 and glucuronizing enzymes (as well as P-glycoprotein) and can reduce the efficacy of co-administered medications such as oral anticoagulants, calcium antagonists, steroids, antimicrobial and antineoplastic drugs through this mechanism. Oxcarbazepine, eslicarbazepine acetate, felbamate, rufinamide, topiramate (at doses ≥200 mg/day) and perampanel (at doses ≥8 mg/day) have weaker inducing properties, and a lower propensity to cause interactions mediated by enzyme induction. Unlike enzyme induction, enzyme inhibition results in decreased metabolic clearance of the affected drug, the serum concentration of which may increase leading to toxic effects. Examples of important interactions mediated by enzyme inhibition include the increase in the serum concentration of phenobarbital and lamotrigine caused by valproic acid. There are also interactions whereby other drugs induce or inhibit the metabolism of antiepileptic drugs, examples being the increase in serum carbamazepine concentration by erythromycin, and the decrease in serum lamotrigine concentration by oestrogen-containing contraceptives. Pharmacodynamic interactions between antiepileptic drugs may also be clinically important. These interactions can have potentially beneficial effects, such as the therapeutic synergism of valproic acid combined with lamotrigine, or adverse effects, such as the reciprocal potentiation of neurotoxicity observed in patients treated with a combination of sodium channel blocking antiepileptic drugs.

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List of reviewers for manuscripts published in 2014

List of reviewers for manuscripts published in 2014

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Original articles

Non-epileptic myoclonic attacks in infancy: three cases

Aglaia Vignoli, Lucio Giordano, Daniela Guerra, Francesca La Briola, Patrizia Accorsi, Miriam Nella Savini, Alessandro Iodice, Anna Molinaro, Maria Paola Canevini

confirmed in the literature. Non-epileptic attacks mimic epileptic paroxysms in clinical presentation, but they have a typically benign course and are unresponsive to pharmacological treatment. An evident feature of the syndrome is its extreme variability in clinical manifestation. Here, we describe three normal infants with two similar forms of non-epileptic paroxysms. Electroclinical manifestations and profile of evolution were investigated. Ictal video-EEG polygraphic recordings were obtained for each patient. The increasing number of such reported clinical cases in the literature may contribute to high quality systematic reviews and the development of useful guidelines in the future. The clinical heterogeneity of non-epileptic attacks, together with the relative rarity of the condition, may make differential diagnosis with epileptic attacks very challenging. [ Published with video sequences]

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A comparison of continuous video-EEG monitoring and 30-minute EEG in an ICU

Omar I. Khan, Christina J. Azevedo, Alendia L. Hartshorn, Justin T. Montanye, Juan C. Gonzalez, Mark A. Natola, Stephen D. Surgenor, Richard P. Morse, Richard E. Nordgren, Krzysztof A. Bujarski, Gregory L. Holmes, Barbara C. Jobst, Rod C. Scott, Vijay M. Thadani

patients, compared to a 30-minute EEG.</p><p> Methods. This was a prospectively enroled non-randomized study of 130 consecutive ICU patients for whom EEG was requested. For 117 patients, a 30-minute EEG was requested for altered mental state and/or suspected seizures; 83 patients continued with continuous video-EEG for 16-24 hours and 34 patients had only the 30-minute EEG. For 13 patients with prior seizures, continuous video-EEG was requested and was carried out for 16-24 hours. We gathered EEG data prospectively, and reviewed the medical records retrospectively to assess the impact of continuous video-EEG.</p><p> Results. A total of 83 continuous video-EEG recordings were performed for 16-24 hours beyond 30 minutes of routine EEG. All were slow, and 34% showed epileptiform findings in the first 30 minutes, including 2% with seizures. Over 16-24 hours, 14% developed new or additional epileptiform abnormalities, including 6% with seizures. In 8%, treatment was changed based on continuous video-EEG. Among the 34 EEGs limited to 30 minutes, almost all were slow and 18% showed epileptiform activity, including 3% with seizures. Among the 13 patients with known seizures, continuous video-EEG was slow in all and 69% had epileptiform abnormalities in the first 30 minutes, including 31% with seizures. An additional 8% developed epileptiform abnormalities over 16-24 hours. In 46%, treatment was changed based on continuous video-EEG.</p><p> Conclusion. This study indicates that if continuous video-EEG is not available, a 30-minute EEG in the ICU has a substantial diagnostic yield and will lead to the detection of the majority of epileptiform abnormalities. In a small percentage of patients, continuous video-EEG will lead to the detection of additional epileptiform abnormalities. In a sub-population, with a history of seizures prior to the initiation of EEG recording, the benefits of continuous video-EEG in monitoring seizure activity and influencing treatment may be greater.</p>

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Mutational analysis of paediatric patients with tuberous sclerosis complex in Korea: genotype and epilepsy

Jin Sook Lee, Byung Chan Lim, Jong-Hee Chae, Yong Seung Hwang, Moon-Woo Seong, Sung Sup Park, Ki Joong Kim

to TSC1 mutations. We analyzed the mutational spectrum of patients with tuberous sclerosis in Korea and attempted to explore the associations between genotype and seizure type/outcome. We performed mutational analyses on 70 unrelated patients with clinically confirmed tuberous sclerosis by using direct DNA sequencing and/or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. The patients’ medical records, including epilepsy type and outcome, were reviewed retrospectively. We identified pathogenic mutations in 55 patients (79%), 25 of which were novel. There were 12 TSC1 mutations and 43 TSC2 mutations. TSC1 mutations included 8 frameshift and 4 nonsense mutations. TSC2 mutations included 12 frameshift, 10 nonsense, 6 splicing, and 6 missense mutations, as well as 4 in-frame deletions and 5 large deletions. Fifty-eight patients had epilepsy (83%), including 19 patients with a history of infantile spasms. Compared to patients with TSC1 mutations, individuals with TSC2 mutations had a significantly higher frequency of epilepsy ( p<0.05) and tended to have a higher frequency of infantile spasms (37% vs 17%; p<0.3). Most of the patients with TSC2 mutations who developed infantile spasms exhibited subsequent epilepsy (13/14; 93%). However, the presence/absence of infantile spasms did not influence seizure remission or cognitive outcome.

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Visual and auditory socio-cognitive perception in unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy in children and adolescents: a prospective controlled study

Agathe Laurent, Alexis Arzimanoglou, Eleni Panagiotakaki, Ignacio Sfaello, Philippe Kahane, Philippe Ryvlin, Edouard Hirsch, Scania de Schonen

of auditory and visual social signals, carried by faces and voices, was evaluated in children or adolescents with temporal lobe epilepsy.

Methods. We prospectively investigated a sample of 62 children with focal non-idiopathic epilepsy early in the course of the disorder. The present analysis included 39 children with a confirmed diagnosis of temporal lobe epilepsy. Control participants (72), distributed across 10 age groups, served as a control group. Our socio-perceptual evaluation protocol comprised three socio-visual tasks (face identity, facial emotion and gaze direction recognition), two socio-auditory tasks (voice identity and emotional prosody recognition), and three control tasks (lip reading, geometrical pattern and linguistic intonation recognition). All 39 patients also benefited from a neuropsychological examination.

Results. As a group, children with temporal lobe epilepsy performed at a significantly lower level compared to the control group with regards to recognition of facial identity, direction of eye gaze, and emotional facial expressions. We found no relationship between the type of visual deficit and age at first seizure, duration of epilepsy, or the epilepsy-affected cerebral hemisphere. Deficits in socio-perceptual tasks could be found independently of the presence of deficits in visual or auditory episodic memory, visual non-facial pattern processing (control tasks), or speech perception. A normal FSIQ did not exempt some of the patients from an underlying deficit in some of the socio-perceptual tasks.

Conclusion. Temporal lobe epilepsy not only impairs development of emotion recognition, but can also impair development of perception of other socio-perceptual signals in children with or without intellectual deficiency. Prospective studies need to be designed to evaluate the results of appropriate re-education programs in children presenting with deficits in social cue processing.

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Clinical commentaries

Adult absence semiology misinterpreted as mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

Rebecca Hurst, Nicole Chiota-McCollum, William Tatum

epilepsy and may aggravate some seizure types, including absence seizures, potentially leading to pseudo-drug resistance. Fortunately, a correct diagnosis of absence seizures is usually not difficult, though rarely demonstrates electroclinical overlap with focal seizures. EEG can be especially misleading when secondary bilateral synchronous discharges occur in patients with focal seizures. However, the semiology of focal seizures associated with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy has a characteristic and consistent semiology that is the mark of this common epilepsy syndrome in adulthood. We recently encountered a 53-year-old female with refractory seizures and a semiology strongly suggesting mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Instead of focal seizures, prolonged absence seizures were validated by video-EEG monitoring and she became seizure-free after a change to broad-spectrum antiepileptic drugs. This case further expands our understanding of the complexity of semiology in electroclinical classification and the spectrum that may occur in adult absence seizures. It serves to underscore the need for ictal EEG recordings and the importance of concordance with the clinical course during the pre-surgical evaluation of patients with lesions and drug-resistant epilepsy. [ Published with video sequences]

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Myoclonic status epilepticus as a presentation of caspr2 antibody-associated autoimmune encephalitis

Sudarshini Ramanathan, Chong H Wong, Zebunnessa Rahman, Russell C Dale, David Fulcher, Andrew F Bleasel

status epilepticus and the prolonged clinical course of refractory seizures, which are demonstrated in the accompanying videos, and not previously associated with this condition. Treatment with prednisone, intravenous immunoglobulin, plasma exchange, rituximab, cyclophosphamide, and mycophenolate mofetil resulted in significant functional improvement. Historically, myoclonic status epilepticus is associated with a grave prognosis and minimal chance of meaningful recovery. This case demonstrates that autoimmune encephalitis remains an important differential diagnosis in patients with such a presentation, and that early recognition and the appropriate institution of immunotherapy can result in seizure control and functional recovery. [ Published with video sequences]

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Focal EEG slowing and chorea: electroclinical clues to the diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis

Abena Osei-Lah, Emma Durrant, Munir Hussain, Fenella Kirkham

performed early in the course of their illness. Although not specific, there may be clues in the electroclinical features that should alert clinicians and electroencephalographers to the possibility of this diagnosis. This case is a reminder that anti- anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis may present initially with a movement disorder as the sole symptom, without features of an encephalopathy. In addition, it adds to the growing body of evidence that recognition of certain electroclinical clues may shorten the time to diagnosis. [ Published with video sequence]

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Treatment responsive GABA(B)-receptor limbic encephalitis presenting as new-onset super-refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) in a deployed U.S. soldier

Jeffrey Brian Hainsworth, Akira Shishido, Brett James Theeler, Craig Grason Carroll, Rebecca Ellen Fasano

He received methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulins, plasma exchange, and rituximab for presumed autoimmune encephalitis before achieving seizure freedom. Six weeks after presentation, the aetiology of his refractory seizures was found to be due to autoantibodies targeting the anti-GABA(B)-receptor. This case is noteworthy for being the first reported case of anti-GABA(B)-receptor limbic encephalitis presenting with new-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE), a clinical syndrome that often carries a grave prognosis and in which a treatable aetiology is often never discovered. Our case also supports testing for GABA-receptor autoantibodies and the upfront use of multi-modal immunotherapy in patients presenting with limbic encephalitis and new refractory seizures.

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Effectiveness of multimodality treatment for autoimmune limbic epilepsy

Divyanshu Dubey, John Konikkara, Pradeep N. Modur, Mark Agostini, Puneet Gupta, Francy Shu, Steven Vernino

non-convulsive status epilepticus, memory impairment, and psychosis. MRI showed right or bitemporal T2 or FLAIR hyperintensity. Video-EEG showed seizures of right temporo-occipital or bitemporal independent onset. Extensive workup failed to reveal infectious aetiology or an underlying tumour. However, the autoantibody panel was positive for one or more of these antibodies: anti-VGKC, anti-GABA B, anti-VGCC (P/Q, N types), and anti-GAD65. All patients received: (1) conventional antiepileptic drugs including levetiracetam, lacosamide, phenobarbital, lamotrigine, and valproate; (2) immunomodulatory therapy including methylprednisolone, plasmapheresis, and intravenous immunoglobulin; and (3) rituximab. After a 4-6-week in-hospital course, the seizures resolved in all patients but 2 had persistent memory impairment. None had treatment-related complications. At the time of last follow-up, 2-3 months later, 2 patients remained seizure-free while 2 had residual memory impairment. Our findings suggest that multimodality treatment with a combination of conventional AEDs, immunomodulatory therapy, and rituximab is effective and safe in autoimmune limbic epilepsy.

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Musicogenic and spontaneous seizures: EEG analyses with hippocampal depth electrodes

F. Irsel Tezer, Burçak Bilginer, Kader K. Oguz, Serap Saygi

arrays, as well as hippocampal depth electrodes. Interestingly, this patient had both spontaneous seizures and musicogenic seizures, and they originated from different hippocampi. Due to bilateral independent musicogenic seizures and spontaneous seizures, our patient was not eligible for surgery, but vagal nerve stimulation treatment was almost successful. [ Published with video sequence]</p>

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Bradycardia and asystole during generalised interictal EEG discharges

Emilia Sforza, Vincent Pichot, Markus Gschwind, Frédéric Roche, Malin Maeder-Ingvar

epilepsy, who recently reported an increase in frequency of nocturnal tonic-clonic seizures, not responding to treatment. During the nocturnal video study, in non-rapid eye movements sleep, we recorded 106 generalised sharp- and polyspike-waves lasting for 3 to 7 seconds, associated with bradycardia and asystole, without behavioural changes and without increase in deltoid muscle activity. The asystole had a duration of between 3 and 8 seconds. In one case, a 7 second asystole was associated with a tonic-clonic generalised seizure. A 24-hour electrocardiographic study revealed a bradycardia and a Wenckebach atrioventricular block. Heart rate analysis at the time of the interictal epileptic discharges revealed an abrupt increase in the RR interval, occurring simultaneously with the onset of interictal epileptic discharges and followed by a return to values below baseline value. A cardiac pacemaker was installed with a reduction of asystole length during the interictal epileptic discharges. Our findings indicate, for the first time, the role of interictal generalised discharges in EEG-related asystole and bradycardia. These data support the hypothesis that some patients with epilepsy may be predisposed to disturbances of the autonomic cardiac system.

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“Paradoxical” EEG response to propofol may differentiate post-cardiac arrest non-convulsive status epilepticus from diffuse irreversible cerebral anoxia

Michalis Koutroumanidis, Dimitris Sakellariou, Vasiliki Tsirka

on a widely accepted low cut-off frequency limit of 2.5-3 Hz for non-evolving patterns, or on discharge evolution of frequency, location or mophology. The secondary criterion is a significant clinical or EEG improvement following acute administration of a rapidly acting antiepileptic drug, such as lorazepam.</p><p>We describe a comatose patient after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, in whom very slow (1-Hz), non-evolving generalised periodic epileptiform discharges against an almost completely depressed background would suggest substantial anoxic damage and poor neurological outcome. Yet, reloading with propofol for diagnostic purposes completely dispersed generalised periodic epileptiform discharges and revealed previously absent biological activity, raising the possibility of non-convulsive status epilepticus that was subsequently confirmed. Brain MRI showed no significant anoxic brain damage and EEG improved, but the patient died from severe cardiopulmonary complications. These observations suggest that in rare cases, slow, non-evolving generalised periodic epileptiform discharges may reflect non-convulsive status epilepticus rather than diffuse irreversible cerebral anoxia, while reloading with propofol can be used as an additional secondary diagnostic criterion.</p>

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Temporal lobe epilepsy and emotion recognition without amygdala: a case study of Urbach-Wiethe disease and review of the literature

Stefano Meletti, Gaetano Cantalupo, Francesca Santoro, Francesca Benuzzi, Anna Federica Marliani, Carlo Alberto Tassinari, Guido Rubboli

with bilateral amygdala calcifications. Our data, supported by ictal video-EEG recording, indicated that our patient suffered from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Emotion recognition abilities were compared to those of healthy controls and those of patients with bilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Our patient showed a selective impairment of the recognition of facial expression of fear, whereas recognition of emotional prosody was preserved, in contrast to bilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy patients that presented with deficits in both domains. We also reviewed the literature on epilepsy in Urbach-Wiethe disease (41 patients). Our findings suggest that in Urbach-Wiethe disease, the circumscribed damage of both amygdalae results in a selective dysfunction of fearful face processing, in contrast to bilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy patients who present with a widespread and multimodal impairment in the judgement of emotional stimuli.

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The use of electrical source imaging in targeting lesional mesial temporal epilepsy for radiosurgical treatment

Alessandra Del Felice, Roberto Foroni, Paolo Manganotti, Silvia F Storti, Giuseppe K Ricciardi, Dafna Ben Bashat, Michele Longhi, Mario Meglio, Antonio Nicolato

Here, we report a case of radio surgery targeted with the aid of electrical source imaging that localizes the cortical area generating the scalp epileptic discharges. The patient, a 39-year-old male, presented with a right mesio-temporal lesion; electrical source imaging localization partially overlapped with the lesional area but showed an important activation of the omolateral frontal area, concordant with the epileptic network. The patient underwent GK-RS, with good neurosurgical and clinical results. A radiosurgical ellipsoidal treatment volume area of 2×2×2 cm 3, located over the right temporo-mesial region within a centre showing abnormal signal intensity, was considered. Seven months after treatment, the patient developed brain oedema that gradually resolved after one year. After three years of follow-up, the patient was seizure-free (Engel class I). Our very preliminary experience suggests that electrical source imaging appears to be a useful supporting tool for the definition of the radiosurgical treatment volume in selected patients with temporo-mesial lesional epilepsy.

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ILAE focal cortical dysplasia type IIIc in the ictal onset zone in epileptic patients with solitary meningioangiomatosis

Nobutaka Mukae, Satoshi O Suzuki, Takato Morioka, Nobuya Murakami, Kimiaki Hashiguchi, Hiroshi Shigeto, Ayumi Sakata, Koji Iihara

in meningioangiomatosis remains controversial. We report two surgically-treated meningioangiomatosis cases with medically intractable epilepsy. In both cases, chronic subdural electrocorticogram (ECoG) recordings identified the ictal onset zone on apparently normal cortex, adjacent to and/or above the meningioangiomatosis lesion, not on the meningioangiomatosis lesion itself. The ictal onset zone was resected, along with the MA lesion, and good seizure outcome was achieved. Histological examination of the ictal onset zone revealed the presence of ILAE focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type IIIc. Our case studies suggest that in the surgical management of epilepsy with meningioangiomatosis, it is important to identify undetected, but epileptogenic, ILAE FCD Type IIIc, using preoperative multimodal examinations, including chronic ECoG recordings.

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Epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spikes and waves in the occipito-temporal region during slow-wave sleep in two patients with acquired Kanji dysgraphia

Ichiro Kuki, Hisashi Kawawaki, Shin Okazaki, Hiroko Ikeda, Kiyotaka Tomiwa

status epileptics during sleep (ESES) was demonstrated on overnight electroencephalography, and dipoles clustered in and around the posterior inferior temporal cortex on magnetoencephalography. Functional neuroimaging suggested dysfunction in the left posterior temporal lobe, including the posterior inferior temporal cortex. The patients had normal intelligence with no problems in reading and writing Kana, as well as copying, reading aloud, and identifying Kanjis, but showed Kanji dysgraphia (morphological, phonemic, and semantic error) accompanied by impaired visual processing. ESES was resolved by sodium valproate, clonazepam, and acetazolamide in Patient 1, and by adrenocorticotropic hormone, sodium valproate, and clorazepate in Patient 2. The present cases had the unique cognitive dysfunction of Kanji dysgraphia, which is distinct from that of Landau-Kleffner syndrome and continuous spikes and waves during slow-wave sleep. However, the present cases also share common features with these two encephalopathies in terms of the clinical course, pathophysiology, neuroimaging, and response to steroids and antiepileptic drugs. In the context of the Japanese language, acquired Kanji dysgraphia may occur due to electrical dysfunction of left posterior inferior temporal cortex in patients with ESES.

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Subclinical focal seizures as a sign of progression in gliomas

José L. Fernández-Torre, Miguel Hernández-Hernández, Juan Martino, Carmen Hinojo

detection of this type of non-convulsive seizures remain challenging, and information is scarce regarding this electroclinical picture in subjects with gliomas. The aim of this report is to describe two patients with gliomas who, after treatment with surgery and radiotherapy, exhibited subclinical seizures on video-EEG monitoring, as a manifestation of recurrence or progression of their brain tumour. Methods. Case report and video-EEG monitoring analysis. Results. Two patients with gliomas were admitted to our neurosurgical unit after a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Brain MRI revealed a recurrence of their tumour. The use of video-EEG monitoring allowed the detection and characterization of subclinical seizures in both patients that otherwise would have gone undetected. In both cases, subclinical seizures arose from the frontal lobe and were not associated with motor manifestations or subjective symptoms. Conclusions. We emphasize that the existence of subclinical seizures in patients with gliomas is likely to be underestimated, and can occur in advanced progressive tumours. It is important to carry out continuous video-EEG monitoring in brain tumour patients who have had recent clinical seizures in order to be able to detect subclinical seizures and make appropriate diagnosis.

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